Obesity in Women

Obesity is a complex disease characterised by an excess of body fat. It is a medical problem that raises the chance of developing other diseases and health issues, such as heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and some malignancies.
The good news is that even modest weight loss can improve or avoid obesity-related health problems. Weight loss can be aided by a healthier diet, more physical activity, and behavioural changes. Prescription drugs and weight-loss procedures are also treatment options for obesity.

Symptoms:
Obesity is frequently diagnosed using the body mass index (BMI). 

BMI Weight Status
Below 18.5 Underweight
18.5-24.9 Normal
25.0-29.9 Overweight


Causes

Obesity develops when you consume more calories than you burn through normal daily activity and exercise. There are genetic, behavioural, metabolic, and hormonal influences on body weight. Excess calories are stored as fat by your body. Obese people may consume more calories before feeling full, become hungry sooner, or consume more calories as a result of stress or anxiety.

Risk factors:
Obesity usually results from a combination of causes and contributing factors

Family Inheritance and Influences:
The genes you inherit from your parents may affect how much body fat you accumulate and where it is distributed. Genetics may also play a role how effectively your body transforms food into energy, how it regulates your appetite, and how it burns calories during exercise.

Obesity often runs in families: This isn't only because they share DNA. Family members also have similar food and physical activity habits.
Lifestyle choices

Unhealthy eating habits: A diet heavy in calories, low in fruits and vegetables, high in fast food, and high in high-calorie beverages and oversized portions contributes to weight gain.

Calories from liquids: People may consume a lot of calories without feeling full, especially alcoholic calories. Other high-calorie beverages, such as sugary soft drinks, can also contribute to weight gain.

Inactivity: If you lead a sedentary lifestyle, you might easily consume more calories than you burn through exercise and daily activities. Sedentary activities include staring at computer, tablet, and phone screens. The duration of time spent in front of a screen is strongly associated with weight gain.

Other factors:

  • Pregnancy
  • Quitting smoking. 
  • Lack of sleep. 
  • Stress. 
  • Microbiome

Complications:

Cardiovascular disease and stroke: Obesity increases your chances of having high blood pressure and abnormal cholesterol levels, both of which are risk factors for heart disease and stroke.

Type 2 diabetes: Obesity can have an effect on how the body utilises insulin to regulate blood sugar levels. This raises the risk of insulin resistance and diabetes.

Certain cancers: Obesity may raise the risk of uterine, cervix, endometrial, ovarian, breast, colon, rectum, esophageal, liver, gallbladder, pancreatic, kidney, and prostate cancer.

Digestive problems: Obesity increases the likelihood of developing heartburn, gallbladder disease and liver problems.

Sleep apnea: Obese people are more prone to suffer from sleep apnea, a potentially serious disorder in which breathing repeatedly stops and starts during sleep.

Osteoarthritis: Obesity increases the stress on weight-bearing joints while also causing inflammation in the body. These risks can result in consequences like osteoarthritis.

Severe COVID-19 symptoms: Obesity increases the risk of developing severe symptoms if infected with the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019. (COVID-19). Severe cases of COVID-19 may require treatment in critical care facilities or perhaps ventilators.

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