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It has been shown that hormones, including sex hormones and glucocorticoids, influence a variety of cellular processes in the central nervous system, including neurodevelopment and neurodegeneration. Glucocorticoid activity and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are involved in neurodegenerative processes, including those that lead to diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.
It has demonstrated that sex hormones can alter cognitive performance. Neurodegenerative illnesses frequently exhibit inflammation, and sex hormones and glucocorticoids can control the inflammatory response.
On the other hand, metabolic disorders, like diabetes, are linked to neurodegeneration while obesity enhances inflammatory vulnerability. Given that the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration may be greatly influenced by gonadal and/or adrenal steroids
Neuroinflammation and Steroidal Hormones
After a physiological or psychologically induced stressful stimuli, the adrenal glands release glucocorticoids that promote anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects via a variety of genomic and non-genomic processes, including the upregulation of anti-inflammatory gene expression.
Levels of C-reactive protein, -glutamyl transferase, and white blood cell and granulocyte count were some of the markers of metabolic syndrome and inflammation that were negatively linked with testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels.
In conclusion, glucocorticoid pathways are strongly associated with DER, including the development of potential pharmacological interventions that could mimic the positive effects of DER. Glucocorticoids have historically been characterised as mediators of many anti-inflammatory effects observed within DER protocols. Closely, a body of evidence points to the possibility that increased glucocorticoid signalling and neuroinflammation are to blame for an HFD's negative impacts on behaviour and cognitive performance.
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